# Setting Up A Device¶

WA should work with most Android devices out-of-the box, as long as the device is discoverable by adb (i.e. gets listed when you run adb devices). For USB-attached devices, that should be the case; for network devices, adb connect would need to be invoked with the IP address of the device. If there is only one device connected to the host running WA, then no further configuration should be necessary (though you may want to tweak some Android settings).

If you have multiple devices connected, have a non-standard Android build (e.g. on a development board), or want to use of the more advanced WA functionality, further configuration will be required.

## Android¶

### General Device Setup¶

You can specify the device interface by setting device setting in ~/.workload_automation/config.py. Available interfaces can be viewed by running wa list devices command. If you don’t see your specific device listed (which is likely unless you’re using one of the ARM-supplied platforms), then you should use generic_android interface (this is set in the config by default).

device = 'generic_android'


The device interface may be configured through device_config setting, who’s value is a dict mapping setting names to their values. You can find the full list of available parameter by looking up your device interface in the Devices section of the documentation. Some of the most common parameters you might want to change are outlined below.

adb_name

If you have multiple Android devices connected to the host machine, you will need to set this to indicate to WA which device you want it to use.

working_directory

WA needs a “working” directory on the device which it will use for collecting traces, caching assets it pushes to the device, etc. By default, it will create one under /sdcard which should be mapped and writable on standard Android builds. If this is not the case for your device, you will need to specify an alternative working directory (e.g. under /data/local).

scheduler

This specifies the scheduling mechanism (from the perspective of core layout) utilized by the device). For recent big.LITTLE devices, this should generally be “hmp” (ARM Hetrogeneous Mutli-Processing); some legacy development platforms might have Linaro IKS kernels, in which case it should be “iks”. For homogeneous (single-cluster) devices, it should be “smp”. Please see scheduler parameter in the generic_android device documentation for more details.

core_names

This and core_clusters need to be set if you want to utilize some more advanced WA functionality (like setting of core-related runtime parameters such as governors, frequencies, etc). core_names should be a list of core names matching the order in which they are exposed in sysfs. For example, ARM TC2 SoC is a 2x3 big.LITTLE system; its core_names would be ['a7', 'a7', 'a7', 'a15', 'a15'], indicating that cpu0-cpu2 in cpufreq sysfs structure are A7’s and cpu3 and cpu4 are A15’s.

core_clusters

If core_names is defined, this must also be defined. This is a list of integer values indicating the cluster the corresponding core in cores_names belongs to. For example, for TC2, this would be [0, 0, 0, 1, 1], indicating that A7’s are on cluster 0 and A15’s are on cluster 1.

A typical device_config inside config.py may look something like

device_config = dict(
'working_direcory'='/sdcard/wa-working',
'core_names'=['a7', 'a7', 'a7', 'a15', 'a15'],
'core_clusters'=[0, 0, 0, 1, 1],
# ...
)


### Configuring Android¶

There are a few additional tasks you may need to perform once you have a device booted into Android (especially if this is an initial boot of a fresh OS deployment):

• You have gone through FTU (first time usage) on the home screen and in the apps menu.
• You have disabled the screen lock.
• You have set sleep timeout to the highest possible value (30 mins on most devices).
• You have disabled brightness auto-adjust and have set the brightness to a fixed level.
• You have set the locale language to “English” (this is important for some workloads in which UI automation looks for specific text in UI elements).

### TC2 Setup¶

This section outlines how to setup ARM TC2 development platform to work with WA.

#### Pre-requisites¶

You can obtain the full set of images for TC2 from Linaro:

For the easiest setup, follow the instructions on the “Firmware” and “Binary Image Installation” tabs on that page.

Note

The default reboot_policy in config.py is to not reboot. With this WA will assume that the device is already booted into Android prior to WA being invoked. If you want to WA to do the initial boot of the TC2, you will have to change reboot policy to at least initial.

#### Setting Up Images¶

Note

Make sure that both DIP switches near the black reset button on TC2 are up (this is counter to the Linaro guide that instructs to lower one of the switches).

Note

The TC2 must have an Ethernet connection.

If you have followed the setup instructions on the Linaro page, you should have a USB stick or an SD card with the file system, and internal microSD on the board (VEMSD) with the firmware images. The default Linaro configuration is to boot from the image on the boot partition in the file system you have just created. This is not supported by WA, which expects the image to be in NOR flash on the board. This requires you to copy the images from the boot partition onto the internal microSD card.

Assuming the boot partition of the Linaro file system is mounted on /media/boot and the internal microSD is mounted on /media/VEMSD, copy the following images:

cp /media/boot/zImage /media/VEMSD/SOFTWARE/kern_mp.bin
cp /media/boot/initrd /media/VEMSD/SOFTWARE/init_mp.bin
cp /media/boot/v2p-ca15-tc2.dtb /media/VEMSD/SOFTWARE/mp_a7bc.dtb

##### Optionally¶

The default device tree configuration the TC2 is to boot on the A7 cluster. It is also possible to configure the device tree to boot on the A15 cluster, or to boot with one of the clusters disabled (turning TC2 into an A7-only or A15-only device). Please refer to the “Firmware” tab on the Linaro paged linked above for instructions on how to compile the appropriate device tree configurations.

WA allows selecting between these configurations using os_mode boot parameter of the TC2 device interface. In order for this to work correctly, device tree files for the A15-bootcluster, A7-only and A15-only configurations should be copied into /media/VEMSD/SOFTWARE/ as mp_a15bc.dtb, mp_a7.dtb and mp_a15.dtb respectively.

This is entirely optional. If you’re not planning on switching boot cluster configuration, those files do not need to be present in VEMSD.

##### config.txt¶

Also, make sure that USB_REMOTE setting in /media/VEMSD/config.txt is set to TRUE (this will allow rebooting the device by writing reboot.txt to VEMSD).

USB_REMOTE: TRUE                 ;Selects remote command via USB


#### TC2-specific device_config settings¶

There are a few settings that may need to be set in device_config inside your config.py which are specific to TC2:

Note

TC2 does not accept most “standard” android device_config settings.

If you’re running WA with reboots disabled (which is the default reboot policy), you will need to manually run adb connect with TC2’s IP address and set this.
root_mount
WA expects TC2’s internal microSD to be mounted on the host under /media/VEMSD. If this location is different, it needs to be specified using this setting.
boot_firmware
WA defaults to try booting using UEFI, which will require some additional firmware from ARM that may not be provided with Linaro releases (see the UEFI and PSCI section below). If you do not have those images, you will need to set boot_firmware to bootmon.
fs_medium
TC2’s file system can reside either on an SD card or on a USB stick. Boot configuration is different depending on this. By default, WA expects it to be on usb; if you are using and SD card, you should set this to sd.
bm_image
Bootmon image that comes as part of TC2 firmware periodically gets updated. At the time of the release, bm_v519r.axf was used by ARM. If you are using a more recent image, you will need to set this indicating the image name (just the name of the actual file, not the path). Note: this setting only applies if using bootmon boot firmware.
serial_device
WA will assume TC2 is connected on /dev/ttyS0 by default. If the serial port is different, you will need to set this.

#### UEFI and PSCI¶

UEFI is a boot firmware alternative to bootmon. Currently UEFI is coupled with PSCI (Power State Coordination Interface). That means that in order to use PSCI, UEFI has to be the boot firmware. Currently the reverse dependency is true as well (for TC2). Therefore using UEFI requires enabling PSCI.

In case you intend to use uefi/psci mode instead of bootmon, you will need two additional files: tc2_sec.bin and tc2_uefi.bin. after obtaining those files, place them inside /media/VEMSD/SOFTWARE/ directory as such:

cp tc2_sec.bin /media/VEMSD/SOFTWARE/
cp tc2_uefi.bin /media/VEMSD/SOFTWARE/


### Juno Setup¶

Note

At the time of writing, the Android software stack on Juno was still very immature. Some workloads may not run, and there maybe stability issues with the device.

The full software stack can be obtained from Linaro:

https://releases.linaro.org/14.08/members/arm/android/images/armv8-android-juno-lsk

Please follow the instructions on the “Binary Image Installation” tab on that page. More up-to-date firmware and kernel may also be obtained by registered members from ARM Connected Community: http://www.arm.com/community/ (though this is not guaranteed to work with the Linaro file system).

#### UEFI¶

Juno uses UEFI to boot the kernel image. UEFI supports multiple boot configurations, and presents a menu on boot to select (in default configuration it will automatically boot the first entry in the menu if not interrupted before a timeout). WA will look for a specific entry in the UEFI menu ('WA' by default, but that may be changed by setting uefi_entry in the device_config). When following the UEFI instructions on the above Linaro page, please make sure to name the entry appropriately (or to correctly set the uefi_entry).

There are two supported way for Juno to discover kernel images through UEFI. It can either load them from NOR flash on the board, or form boot partition on the file system. The setup described on the Linaro page uses the boot partition method.

If WA does not find the UEFI entry it expects, it will create one. However, it will assume that the kernel image resides in NOR flash, which means it will not work with Linaro file system. So if you’re replicating the Linaro setup exactly, you will need to create the entry manually, as outline on the above-linked page.

#### Rebooting¶

At the time of writing, normal Android reboot did not work properly on Juno Android, causing the device to crash into an irrecoverable state. Therefore, WA will perform a hard reset to reboot the device. It will attempt to do this by toggling the DTR line on the serial connection to the device. In order for this to work, you need to make sure that SW1 configuration switch on the back panel of the board (the right-most DIP switch) is toggled down.

## Linux¶

### General Device Setup¶

You can specify the device interface by setting device setting in ~/.workload_automation/config.py. Available interfaces can be viewed by running wa list devices command. If you don’t see your specific device listed (which is likely unless you’re using one of the ARM-supplied platforms), then you should use generic_linux interface (this is set in the config by default).

device = 'generic_linux'


The device interface may be configured through device_config setting, who’s value is a dict mapping setting names to their values. You can find the full list of available parameter by looking up your device interface in the Devices section of the documentation. Some of the most common parameters you might want to change are outlined below.

Currently, the only only supported method for talking to a Linux device is over SSH. Device configuration must specify the parameters need to establish the connection.

host

This should be either the the DNS name or IP address of the device.

username

The login name of the user on the device that WA will use. This user should have a home directory (unless an alternative working directory is specified using working_directory config – see below), and, for full functionality, the user should have sudo rights (WA will be able to use sudo-less acounts but some instruments or workload may not work).

password

Password for the account on the device. Either this of a keyfile (see below) must be specified.

keyfile

If key-based authentication is used, this may be used to specify the SSH identity file instead of the password.

property_files

This is a list of paths that will be pulled for each WA run into the __meta subdirectory in the results. The intention is to collect meta-data about the device that may aid in reporducing the results later. The paths specified do not have to exist on the device (they will be ignored if they do not). The default list is ['/proc/version', '/etc/debian_version', '/etc/lsb-release', '/etc/arch-release']

In addition, working_directory, scheduler, core_names, and core_clusters can also be specified and have the same meaning as for Android devices (see above).

A typical device_config inside config.py may look something like

device_config = dict(
host='192.168.0.7',

If you are working with a particularly unusual device (e.g. a early stage development board) or need to be able to handle some quirk of your Android build, configuration available in generic_android interface may not be enough for you. In that case, you may need to write a custom interface for your device. A device interface is an Extension (a plug-in) type in WA and is implemented similar to other extensions (such as workloads or instruments). Pleaser refer to Adding a Device section for information on how this may be done.